El sol de Texas/Under the Texas Sun


by Conrado Espinoza

English translation by Ehtriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales

Introduction by John Pluecker

ISBN: 978-1-55885-480-2
Publication Date: March 31, 2007
Bind: Trade Paperback

This long-lost novel is now available in the original Spanish with an English translation. Published as part of the Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project series.


About the Book

“They had just crossed the bridge into the United States. Their feet were now firmly planted on the soil that was their promised land. They had made it! Blessed be the Virgin of Guadalupe! Now they had no reason to fear the villistas, the carrancistas, the government, or the revolutionaries! Here they could find peace, work, wealth and happiness!” And so begins the story of the Garcia family, who like many of their compatriots, fled their homeland during the upheaval of the Mexican Revolution in search of a better life in the United States.

Originally published in 1926 in San Antonio, Texas as El sol de Texas, the novel chronicles the struggles of two Mexican immigrant families: the Garcias and the Quijanos. Their initial hopes—of returning to their homeland with enough money to buy their own piece of land—are worn away by the reality of immigrant life. Unable to speak English, they find themselves at the mercy of unscrupulous work contractors and foremen: forced to work at backbreaking labor picking cotton in the fields, building the burgeoning Southwest railroad system, and working in GulfCoast oil refineries.

Considered the first novel of Mexican immigration, El sol de Texas/Under the Texas Sun depicts the diverse experiences of Mexican immigrants, from those that return to Mexico beaten down by the discrimination and hardship they encounter, to those who persist in their adopted land in spite of the racism they face.

The original Spanish-language text is accompanied by the first-ever English translation by Ethriam Cash Brammer and an introduction by John Pluecker. Publication of this fascinating historical novel will provide unique insight into the long history of Mexican immigration to the United   States and its implications for cultural, historical, and literary studies.


“A Tex-Mex precursor to The Grapes of Wrath… Under the Texas Sun similarly uses the travails of migrant worker families to drive home a social message” – The Texas Observer

“The racism, exploitation and other forms of cruelty described… have the ring of truth [and] is what gives this book its value” -Críticas

Conrado Espinoza

Conrado Espinoza (1897-1977) worked in the educational system in Mexico before going into exile in the United States, where he worked as a journalist for newspapers such as La Opinion in Los Angeles and La Prensa in San Antonio. In 1930, he returned to Mexico where he founded a school in the state of Sinaloa and lived the rest of his days.

Ethriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales

Ethriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales is a widely published poet, screenwriter, and fiction writer. He is the translator of Lucas Guevara (Arte Publico Press, 2003), the first Spanish-language novel of immigration to the United States originally published in 1914, and The Adventures of Don Chipote, or, When Parrots Breast-Feed (Arte Publico Press, 2000), by Daniel Venegas and published originally in Spanish in 1928. He currently lives in Detroit, Michigan with his family.

About the Author

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